اثر بخشی آموزش فرزند پروری مقابله با کودک آزاری براسترس والدگری و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان مادران دارای سابقه کودک آزاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای مشاوره، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشکده علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان،

2 گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، واحد اصفهان(خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران (نویسنده مسئول) تلفن: 09133233069

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

10.22034/fh.2024.712410

چکیده

مقدمه: این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثربخشی آموزش فرزند پروری مقابله با کودک آزاری براسترس والدگری و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان در مادران دارای سابقه کودک آزاری در شهر اصفهان انجام شد.
روش پژوهش: روش پژوهش نیمه آزمایشی طرح پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون- پیگیری با گروه کنترل بود. بدین منظور از بین مراجعین مراکز اورژانس اجتماعی در سال 1401 به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس 30 نفر از مادران دارای سابقه کودک‌آزاری انتخاب شده و بطور تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل جایگزین شدند. آزمودنی‌های هر دو گروه پرسشنامه‌های استرس والدگری و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان را در مراحل پیش‌آزمون پس‌آزمون و پیگیری دو ماهه پاسخ دادند. گروه آزمایش 8 جلسه 60 دقیقه ای آموزش فرزند پروری مقابله با کودک آزاری را به صورت دوبار درهفته دریافت نمودند، گروه کنترل در این مدت هیچ نوع آموزشی دریافت نکردند برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از روش‌های آماری توصیفی (میانگین و انحراف استاندارد) و استنباطی (تحلیل واریانس اندازه‌های تکراری) استفاده شد.
یافته ها: نتایج تحلیل واریانس اندازه‌های تکراری نشان داد که آموزش فرزند پروری مقابله با کودک آزاری باعث کاهش استرس والدگری و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان در مادران دارای سابقه کودک‌آزاری می‌شود (05/0>›P).
نتیجه گیری: با توجه به نتایج حاصل می‌توان گفت یکی از روش‌های موثر برای کاهش استرس والدگری و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان در مادران دارای سابقه کودک‌آزاری می‌تواند آموزش مقابله با کودک آزاری باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Child Abuse Copping Parenting Training, on Parenting Stress and Children's Behavioral Problems in Mothers with history of Child Abuse.

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahmood moradi 1
  • Zahra Yousefi 2
  • Mansoureh Bahramipour 3
1 PhD Student in Counseling, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan, Islamic Azad University, ), Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan),, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran (corresponding author) tell: 09133233069
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction: Children are always the most vulnerable group of society, who are not able to fully protect and support themselves due to various reasons, including their young age and lack of sufficient skills, and they need the support of adults, especially their parents. The aim of this research was investigating the effectiveness of child abuse copping parenting training on, parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse in Isfahan.
Methods: The research method was a semi-experimental pre-test-post-test-follow-up with control group. For this purpose, 30 mothers with a history of child abuse were available selected among the clients of social emergency centers in 2022 and were randomly assigned in two experimental and control groups. Subjects of both groups answered parenting stress questionnaires and children's behavioral problems in the pre-test, post-test, and two-month follow-up stages. The experimental group received eight 60-minute sessions of Child abuse copping parenting training twice a week. The control group did not receive any training during this period to analyze the data using descriptive statistical methods (mean and deviation standard) and inferential (repeated measurement analysis of variance) were used.
Findings: The results of repeated measurement analysis of variance showed that Child abuse copping parenting training reduces parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse (P<0.05).
Conclusions: According to the results, it can be said that one of the effective ways to reduce parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse can be Child abuse copping parenting training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • child abuse tendency
  • children's behavioral problems
  • history of child abuse
  • parenting stress
  • Parenting training

Original research

The Effectiveness of Child Abuse Copping Parenting Training, on Parenting Stress and Children's Behavioral Problems in Mothers with history of Child Abuse

Mahmood Moradi,[1] Zahra Yousefi,*[2] Mansooreh Bahramipoor[3]

 

[1] - PhD Student in Counseling, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran. moradi_mfc@yahoo.com 

[2] - (Corresponding author): Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran. z.yousefi@khuisf.ac.ir tell: 09113293029

[3] - Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran. bahramipourisfahani@khuisf.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Children are always the most vulnerable group of society, who are not able to fully protect and support themselves due to various reasons, including their young age and lack of sufficient skills, and they need the support of adults, especially their parents. The aim of this research was investigating the effectiveness of child abuse copping parenting training on, parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse in Isfahan.

Methods: The research method was a semi-experimental pre-test-post-test-follow-up with control group. For this purpose, 30 mothers with a history of child abuse were available selected among the clients of social emergency centers in 2022 and were randomly assigned in two experimental and control groups. Subjects of both groups answered parenting stress questionnaires and children's behavioral problems in the pre-test, post-test, and two-month follow-up stages. The experimental group received eight 60-minute sessions of Child abuse copping parenting training twice a week. The control group did not receive any training during this period to analyze the data using descriptive statistical methods (mean and deviation standard) and inferential (repeated measurement analysis of variance) were used.

Findings: The results of repeated measurement analysis of variance showed that Child abuse copping parenting training reduces parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse (P<0.05).

Conclusions: According to the results, it can be said that one of the effective ways to reduce parenting stress and children's behavioral problems in mothers with a history of child abuse can be Child abuse copping parenting training.

Keywords: children's behavioral problems, history of child abuse Parenting training, child abuse tendency, parenting stress

Received: 2/ May/ 2023               Accepted: 15/June/ 2023

Introduction:

The early years of a child are considered the most important years of a person's life, so that the experiences of these years will form the foundation of his future life. Studies show that many problems in adulthood are rooted in childhood experiences. The effects of what happens early in life and even before birth can continue throughout life. The growth and development of early childhood is a window of opportunity to improve health, so the quality of care during this period plays a significant role in the health and growth and development of the child, also childhood is an important period for social development(1). Family, as the first human institution based on the type of relationship with children, has the greatest impact on the psychological, social and cultural personality of the children, secondly, it indirectly affects the society on the type of relationships of its culture, in fact, over time, changes in the children's family changed and with children entering the society, the society will also change. In this way, most of the psychological, social and cultural personality traits of people is established in this period, which is in the family. In fact, the formation of childhood depends directly on the role of the family (2).

One of the important issues that disrupts the natural development of children is child abuse. There is strong evidence that childhood maltreatment has long-term mental health consequences, and these adverse childhood experiences lead to a serious crisis in children's public health (3). Child abuse is a type of behavior by parents or caregivers of a child that threatens or harms the well-being and mental and physical health of the child. In Iran, 12% of children who refer to specialized emergency clinics have physical injuries caused by their parents. The lower the child's age, the higher the amount of child abuse, and the abuse is usually done by caregivers (parents, babysitters, caregivers, relatives). About 78% of abuses are done by parents (4). Each type of misbehavior is associated with at least several cases of children's health risks, including self-reported depression, poor general health, violent behavior including fighting and harming others, etc. In neglect, the child's physical and mental or emotional condition is often disturbed due to the parent's or caregiver's inability to provide adequate food, shelter, education or supervision. In severe types of neglect, there is growth failure (5). Most perpetrators of child abuse are parents. Parents' attitude towards children and their behavior towards them is one of the important causes of child abuse. In many cases, child abuse is caused by a lack of knowledge about how to properly interact with and the consequences of this phenomenon. Also, parents may have wrong beliefs and attitudes that make child abuse behaviors seem justified (6).

In any case, the birth of a child is a big change in the life of parents, which brings with it a certain stress as parenting stress. Parental stress can be defined as follows: a series of processes that lead to a series of unpleasant psychological and physical reactions due to trying to adapt to the requirements of the parental role. These processes are often experienced as negative feelings and experiences about the person and the child. These negative feelings directly result from the role of parenting (7). It has been proven that the type of stress of the role of parenting is completely different from other stresses in life such as stress caused by work, accidents and unfortunate experiences, and this stress is special and specific to this role of parenting. Also, compared to other stressful areas of life, this stress has the greatest impact on parents' behavior and children's growth and is a strong predictor of children's behavioral and emotional problems (8). Factors related to the child, factors related to the parents, and factors related to the relationship between the child and the parent are all involved in creating parenting stress. Malpractice in the child-parent relationship has a strong relationship with the amount and degree of responsibility in the parent-child relationship. Depending on the reaction and attitude of the parents, the stress of parenting can increase, the quality of parenting worsens, and finally the behavioral and emotional problems of the child will increase. It will get better (9).

What is certain is that parents who do not have the ability to communicate emotionally with their child, or are not aware of the child's growth and development stages, or cannot understand the child's needs and behaviors, consider their child's misbehavior to be intentional. Also, parents who choose inappropriate punishment methods for their child's misbehavior and parents who are unaware of their mental and psychological characteristics or suffer from mental and even physical problems and are indifferent to it and In general, they lack parenting skills, all of them can commit violence and abuse against their children willingly or unwillingly, and this causes the beginning of various behavioral problems in children in response to their parents' inappropriate behaviors (4). Children who have been exposed to violence for a long time, especially those who have suffered physical abuse, as well as children whose caregivers have been exposed to violence, may exhibit destructive and aggressive behaviors. Children who witnessed their mother's mistreatment or were victims of mistreatment themselves may not express their experiences due to the direct threat of abusive adults and instead express their feelings through aggression and maladaptive behaviors. These children have severe tinnitus and in some cases misinterpret benign situations and react violently (3).

Although parents in many cases learn the ability to manage their children's behavior and apply child-rearing methods from their parents or religious and cultural education, however, they have difficulties in choosing the best way to deal with their children and inevitably need to Referring to methods based on scientific evidence. Also, studies based on scientific evidence show that weak parenting skills are among the risk factors in child abuse and neglect. Therefore, teaching parenting skills to parents in the field of dealing with child abuse can prevent this phenomenon from occurring (5).

So far, various psychological, social, educational and even judicial and disciplinary methods have been used to deal with the phenomenon of child abuse. The child abuse copping training package specifically considers the perpetration of mothers to child abuse and covers all the factors related to the tendency of mothers to abuse children. Factors related to child abuse generally include three main categories of child-centered, family-centered, and community-centered factors. Factors related to the child's health and development, as well as the way the child is accepted in the family, are among the key child-centered factors in mothers committing violence against their children. Also, the mental and emotional damages of mothers, including any psychological incompatibility of parents and the experience of violence by mothers, and social and economic concerns in the family, including unemployment and financial problems, low education and weak parenting skills, family isolation are among the most important factors. Family oriented are related to child abuse. Any weakness in understanding, informing or implementing laws related to crimes of violence against children, or the lack of support networks for victims, accepted beliefs about abuse in society, or false beliefs about dealing with children in the sphere of society(4).

So far, various researches have been conducted in the field of parenting stress and children's behavioral problems, including Arjmand Souzeshi, Gol Mohammadian, Rashidi (10) in their research, the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment in reducing parenting stress and improving the parent-parent relationship. Children of mothers with teenagers with thalassemia major were confirmed. Sattari, Gharibi and Salahian (11) confirmed the effectiveness of verbal self-education on reducing symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, social aggression and anxiety in children. Daneshmand Khorasgani and Yousefi showed in their research that changing the parenting style based on the modification of incompatible schemas in mothers with children with behavioral problems improves these disorders. Kurdestani showed in his research that behavioral training for mothers reduces their parenting stress and prevents confusion in parent-child relationships as well as behavioral problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

However, every year the welfare organization faces the problem of child abuse as an urban crisis and is looking for ways to reduce this individual, family and social crisis. Also, a review of the researches showed that so far the parenting method of dealing with child abuse has not been used to reduce parental stress and reduce children's behavioral problems. The results of such research can be effective in preparing treatment and prevention packages in the field of research variables. In any case, the inadequacy and incompetence of parents, especially the mother, can lead to parenting stress in the first place and in the second place to issues and problems such as child abuse by them, which in turn can cause behavioral problems in children. Therefore, it seems that improving the parenting method with the help of parenting style training to deal with child abuse can reduce the parenting stress of mothers and ultimately lead to solving the behavioral problems of children in mothers who commit child abuse. Therefore, in the present research, in a preliminary study, according to the principles of qualitative research, a child abuse copping training package was designed and validated based on the identification of its causes among social emergency experts, and then the methods of dealing with psychological and interpersonal causes were designed and validated under the supervision of experts. It is stated in the method section, and the aim was to answer this question, does child abuse copping training package have a significant effect on parenting stress and behavioral problems of children in mothers with a history of child abuse in Isfahan city?

 

Research method: 

This research was a semi-experimental type with a pre-test post-test design with an experimental group and a control group. The statistical population included all the clients of the social emergency center in 1401, that 30 mothers with a history of child abuse were selected through available sampling and randomly replaced in two groups of 15 people. These mothers were all literate and had completed at least elementary school, and all the mothers in the study were over 30 years old. All the mothers were living with their husbands at the time of the research and had no previous marriage history. Also, the age range of the children of these mothers was from 4 to 12 years. In this study, the inclusion criteria were: lack of history of hospitalization due to psychiatric disorder, absence of occupational, economic and marital crisis, absence of simultaneous participation in other training courses, absence of mothers suffering from chronic physical diseases and addiction. Also, the exit criteria were unwillingness to participate in meetings, aggression, insults or leaving the main topic, and non-cooperation in homework.

Parenting stress index, short form:  This tool includes a 36-question short version of the parenting stress index prepared by Abidin (2011). There are three subscales of parental disturbance, ineffective parent-child interactions, and problematic child characteristics in the short form. Questions 1 to 12 are related to the subscale of parental confusion and measure the feeling of tension about parenting. Questions 13 to 24 are related to dysfunctional parent-child interactions, which deal with parents' expectations from children. Questions 25 to 36 are related to the subscale of problematic child characteristics and indicate children's behaviors that make parenting easier or harder. The 5-point Likert scale ranges from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). The subject should choose the option that is most relevant to him from among each of the options. In the study conducted by Fadaei, Dehghani, Tahmasian and Farhadi (14), the reliability coefficient of this test is equal to 0.75 for the total score of parental stress, 0.82 for the subscale of parental confusion, and 0.73 for the subscale of ineffective interaction. Parent, child and 0.71 were problematic for the child's characteristics subscale, and these correlation values indicate a satisfactory measurement of the scores of this index. In the present research, Cronbach's alpha obtained for this scale was 0/93.

Connors Child Behavior Problems Scale, Parent Form: Connors, and Ulrich created a short form of this scale with 48 items. This scale is completed by parents. Scoring is based on a 4-point Likert scale from 0 (almost never) to 3 (always). The minimum score in this test is 0 and the maximum score is 144. It should be noted that a higher score indicates more behavioral problems and a lower score indicates less behavioral problems. The initial form of this scale includes 5 subscales of behavior problems, learning problems, psychosomatic problems, hyperactivity-impulsivity, anxiety, and passivity. The validity and reliability of this scale has been reported from 0.41 to 0.83 in different countries. This scale was later translated into English by two fluent Persian speakers and reviewed by two psychologists. In the standardization and analysis of the factors that was carried out in Iran in 2005, it was divided into the following 4 factors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.73 for the total score and 0.77, 0.57, 0.86, and 0.74 for the subscales of behavior, social problems, shy anxiety, and psychosomatic problems, respectively. Also, the correlation coefficients of the subtests range from 0.90 for conduct disorder to 0.76 for the anxiety-shyness subscale. In order to check the reliability between the scorers, a group of 80 people were selected from among the sample people, of which 58 people declared their readiness. After calculating the correlation between the parents' scores, the reliability coefficient of the total score was 0.70 and for its subscales, respectively, 0.70, 0.71, 0.68, 0.46 were obtained Shahabian, Shahim, Bashash, Yousefi, (15). Cronbach's alpha for the entire scale in the current research 0/95. Was obtained.

After sampling and assigning mothers with a history of child abuse in two experimental and control groups, the mothers of the experimental group were taught parenting methods to deal with child abuse for 8 sessions of 60 minutes in person. The sessions were held twice a week for four weeks. Both groups responded to the research tools in the form of pre-test, post-test and 2-month follow-up. In order to comply with ethics in the research, subjects were given the right to withdraw from the training course whenever they wanted to withdraw. They were also assured that their information is completely confidential and will only be used for research purposes. In addition, the mothers of the control group received intensive training after completing the course. In order to analyze the data, the data were examined at two descriptive and inferential levels. At the descriptive level, the mean and standard deviation were calculated, and at the inferential level, the research hypotheses were evaluated using the statistical method of repeated measures analysis of variance.

Child abuse copping training package in mothers with a history of child abuse: The package developed in the preliminary qualitative research was validated after the design under the supervision of the supervisor and consultant. The content of this package is shown in table (1). The sessions were conducted by the researcher in one of the welfare counseling centers of Isfahan, twice a week and in 90-minute sessions.

Table 1: Summary of interventions related to Child abuse copping

 

1

Discussions regarding the participants' problems with their children and their upbringing methods - familiarization of the participants with the definition of child abuse

The participants talk about their problems with their children and their unsolvable or difficult problems with the teacher and group members. - They should be asked what behaviors or methods in themselves have fueled their children's current problems and what is their reaction to the child's problems? - Child abuse happens when any avoidable act or omission affects the physical, mental and emotional health of the child.

2

Introducing the types of child abuse Introducing the causes of child abuse

The teacher should explain the four types of child abuse with examples. - Discussing with mothers about the causes of child abuse, including emotional disorder, inappropriate parenting styles, and lack of awareness of developmental characteristics.

3

Getting to know the perpetrators of child abuse Getting to know the consequences of child abuse

The teacher should explain about who our children can be exposed to child abuse and the occurrence of inferiority complex, insecure attachment, and bad habits such as the tendency to addiction, etc. as the effects of child abuse.

4

-Introducing growth stages and related crises and problems - Getting to know the types of parenting styles based on indicators of control and affection

- The teacher should teach Erikson's stages of development. - The participants will get to know the authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian parenting style, and the strengths and weaknesses of each style will be explained. -How to move from wrong parenting styles to authoritative parenting style.

5

Getting to know the characteristics of parents that affect the upbringing of children

Familiarizing parents with the role of disciplined parents in raising children, as well as the role of controlling anxiety in raising children and having the power to take risks in family and social life on the success of children.

 

6

Getting to know the methods of how to regulate emotions and methods of correcting effective cognitions in reducing child abuse

The trainer explains to mothers about the dangers of their role in creating emotional disorder and how to break away from thoughts that are effective in child abuse.

7

Explaining how to form a secure attachment based on reducing marital conflicts and ways to improve parenting behaviors

- Educators should teach mothers that triangulation with children is a form of child abuse and de-triangulation is effective in the formation of secure attachment style in children. - Mothers should get to know the optimal parenting values.

8

Acquainting mothers with lifestyle management to prevent child abuse. Getting to know the role of correct punishment and reinforcement in preventing child abuse and strengthening socialization

 

The trainer should explain to the mothers what the dimensions of the lifestyle are. The teacher should explain about the type of wrong lifestyle in the field of sleep, nutrition and recreation in causing child abuse. - The teacher should explain the two effective methods of punishment and reward and their types in shaping the child's behavior and the dangers of inappropriate punishment. -Answering the subjects' questions, summarizing the contents and conducting the post-test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Findings:

 Table 2. Demographic characteristics of mothers in experimental and control groups

 

child abuse copping parenting group

 

People 1-15

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

mother's age

48

41

38

38

37

42

34

34

37

35

31

21

32

21

34

education

guidance

elementary

elementary

guidance

diploma

guidance

elementary

elementary

guidance

elementary

guidance

diploma

guidance

elementary

elementary

duration of marriage

20

26

13

6

6

20

13

13

14

11

13

4

13

5

15

 

control group

People 1-15

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

mother's age

38

39

30

37

25

34

40

36

38

39

34

29

39

41

38

education

guidance

elementary

diploma

guidance

elementary

guidance

elementary

elementary

guidance

diploma

guidance

elementary

elementary

elementary

elementary

duration of marriage

13

12

7

15

5

7

15

12

8

14

11

6

15

14

8

 

Table 3. Mean and standard deviation of parenting stress and behavioral disorders by group

 

standard deviation

Mean

group

Variable

17.90238

119.9333

Child abuse copping training group

parenting stress Pre-test

23.71758

124.6667

control group

15.29457

106.2667

Child abuse copping training group

parenting stress Post-test

15.82253

128.2667

control group

14.03160

100.8000

Child abuse copping training group

parenting stress Follow-up

18.68103

124.8667

control group

8.92669

71.4000

Child abuse copping training group

Children's behavioral disorders - pre-test

18.71007

72.7333

control group

8.50210

60.0000

Child abuse copping training group

Children's behavioral disorders - post-test

17.97697

71.8000

control group

8.47574

55.4667

Child abuse copping training group

Children's behavioral disorders follow-up

18.21878

71.9333

control group

 

The results of Table 3 show that the scores of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders have changed in the post-test of the experimental group compared to the control group. These results remained stable in the follow-up phase. In order to investigate the significance of this difference and considering that each subject has been subjected to the test of tendency to child abuse and parenting self-efficacy three times, the analysis of variance test with repeated measures has been used. Also, the normality of data scores was checked using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The results of the Shapiro and Wilk test showed that the data were normal. In order to check the equality of variance of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders, Levine's test was used. The results of this test showed that the variance of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders are not significantly different. This is the premise of using the analysis of variance test with repeated measures, which is followed in this research. In order to investigate the covariance of parenting stress variables and children's behavioral disorders in three stages of measurement, Machli's test was used. The results of Machelli's test showed that the variance of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders in the three stages of measurement are not significantly different and this assumption of using variance analysis of repeated measures has been observed in this research.

Table 4: The results of repeated measurements analysis of variance of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders by group

power

Eta squared

significance

F

Mean of squares

Df

sum of squares

Variables

Source of changes

1.000

.473

.000

37.737

1760.044

1

1760.044

factor 1 (time)

within subjects

Parenting stress

.999

.420

.000

15.213

709.544

2

1419.089

Factor 1* group

 

 

 

 

46.640

28

1958.867

error

.456

.102

.104

2.392

3546.274

2

7092.548

group

between subjects

1.000

.649

.000

77.510

3410.178

1

3410.178

factor 1 (time)

within subjects

children Behavioral disorders

1.000

.458

.000

17.717

779.478

2

1558.956

Factor 1* group

 

 

 

 

43.997

28

1847.867

error

.447

.100

.109

2.333

1354.230

2

2708.459

group

between subjects

 

 

According to the data in Table 4, based on the scores obtained from the parenting style of coping with child abuse, the main effect of the time factor is significant for the variable of parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders. That is, the estimated averages of the two variables from the pre-test to the post-test stage and the two-month follow-up show a significant difference (p<0.01). The main effect of the group membership factor (Seligman's parenting style training vs. no training) was found to be significant for the child abuse tendency variable. (p<0.01). Also, the interaction of time factor and group membership was statistically significant for the variables of child abuse and self-efficacy. This means that there is a significant change between the experimental group and the control group in the mean scores of child abuse tendency and self-efficacy from pre-test to post-test. The two-month follow-up also indicated that the changes that occurred were stable. Also, the statistical power of 1.00 for parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders indicates the appropriateness of the sample size for such a conclusion. 42% of changes in parenting stress and 45.8% of changes in behavioral disorders are related to parenting training to deal with child abuse.

 

Discussion and conclusion:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of child abuse copping parenting training on parenting stress and children's behavioral disorders in mothers with a history of child abuse. The results showed that child abuse copping parenting training in these mothers reduces the stress of parenting, and the results of the present research are in agreement with the results of Nejati Far and Abadi's research (16) regarding the importance of learning interaction analysis methods in reducing the stress of mothers' parenting and acceptance. Parents of aggressive children, Shahriari, Qasimzadeh, Kashani and Vakili(17) in relation to the effect of an integrated program of transdiagnostic treatment on parental stress and depression in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, Kesai Esfahani and Davarnia(18) in the field of the effect of positive psychotherapy on The group method on parenting stress of mothers with children with Down syndrome is consistent.

In explaining the effectiveness of the parenting method to deal with child abuse, it should be said that since parenting stress is a result of the perceived discrepancy between parental demand and individual resources, and such stress can be experienced in several areas of life that are related to parenting, and It is that the characteristics of the parent and the child, together with the external situational variables and life stressors, are the reason for the possible increase in dysfunctional behavior and parenting stress, therefore, parenting training to deal with child abuse had methods and mechanisms that reduced it. Parenting stress has become mothers. Among these mechanisms was that mothers first deal with the developmental stages and problems of the child, factors related to the way the child is born in the family, the need for security in children, methods of managing children's inappropriate behaviors, how to discipline children, how to discipline children. They learned the stable and appropriate procedure in dealing with children, the techniques and educational strategies necessary to raise calm children. Secondly, the mothers got acquainted with the optimal position of parenting, the characteristics of parents that are effective in raising children, how to form a secure attachment based on reducing marital conflicts and marital disputes, and in addition to getting a sense of satisfaction with their role in interacting with their children, They have mastered their parenting duties, gained more self-confidence and finally overcome their stress and worries in the field of communication with their children.

In another part of the research, the results showed that child abuse copping parenting training was effective in solving the behavioral disorders of children of mothers with a history of child abuse and reduced the behavioral disorders of children in mothers. The results of this research with the results of Radfar, Zarei, Sorani and Moalem(19) in the field of the educational effect of parenting on reducing aggression and law breaking problems of teenagers, Dostani and Qamrani(20) regarding the effect of two types of education on socialization of emotions and education of parenting metaphors on Mothers on the shame of children with internalized behavioral problems, Shahriari, Ghasemzadeh and Vakili(21) are in agreement about the importance of child play therapy focused on the internalized and externalized behavioral problems of children with cerebral palsy.

In explaining the effectiveness of parenting trainings to deal with child abuse, it can be said that since a major part of children's behavioral problems are their reactions and reactions to the behavior of parents, especially mothers, therefore, parenting education to deal with child abuse had solutions that could To reduce some of the behavioral problems of children of mothers with a history of child abuse. Among these mechanisms was that, firstly, while teaching mothers to remove their abuses towards their children, especially physical and mental emotional abuses, as well as neglect, they caused their children to change their reactions. Second, intragroup processes during mothers' training sessions played a role in the effectiveness of this method. Participation of mothers in a group of people who were all experiencing similar problems made them gain new knowledge about their situation. In the group meetings, before introducing the methods of using correct punishment, there was a discussion about the destructive side effects of physical, mental and emotional punishment, as well as neglect and its long-term consequences in the child's future life. Mothers were then taught how to use punishment as a tool to shape behavior. They were asked not to use punishment as a way to release anger and frustration when they lose control. Third, they were taught how to control anger. It seems that the training to deal with child abuse has changed the style of punishing mothers, and the less aggressiveness of mothers and the reduction of physical and mental-emotional punishment have led to the reduction of children's maladaptive behaviors.

The current research was limited to mothers with a history of child abuse, so caution should be taken in generalizing its results to the male community. Also, this research was conducted in the city of Isfahan, and one should be cautious in applying its results to other societies. The problem of child abuse and its effects on children's development is of great importance, so it is suggested that trainings related to dealing with child abuse and parenting should be given attention in addition to other trainings, both in medical centers and in kindergartens. Even if possible, fathers and mothers should be encouraged to such trainings at the same time.

Acknowledgment: This study has been carried out in the form of a doctorate counseling thesis. In this regard, we would like to thank all those who participated in this research. We hereby express our gratitude to the Research Vice-Chancellor of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch and the professors and all those who cooperated in the implementation of this research project.

Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest between the authors of this article.

Research limitations:  This research, like other researches, had limitations that will be mentioned below. It is hoped that future researches will provide more suitable commitments by considering these limitations. 1- The statistical sample was selected as available. 2- The sample was limited to mothers and fathers were not present. 3- The researcher and the teacher were the same in this study. 4- The research was limited to the city of Isfahan and its generalization to other situations should be done with caution. 5- Intervening variables such as mothers' economic, social and family status were not controlled.

Application of research

 1- The results of this research can help in the development of educational packages to deal with child abuse. 2- The results of such a research can help in the development of educational packages to improve child-rearing methods. 3- The results of such research can pave the way for other researches in this field. 4- The results of this research can contribute to the enrichment of parents' knowledge in the field of parenting. 5- The results of this research will be effective in formulating frameworks for the prevention of violence against children.

Ethical considerations:  The present research was carried out with the full consent of the mothers who referred to the social emergency. All participants had the option to cooperate or not cooperate in the research and withdraw from the research at any stage. The subjects were also assured that their information would remain completely confidential and that the results would be used as a group and only for an academic research. It should be noted that the present study is taken from the thesis of the doctoral degree in counseling with the code of ethics IR.IAU.KHUISF.REC.1400.120 of the Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan branch.

 

References:

 

© 2020 The Author(s). This work is published by family and health as an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted, provided the original work is properly cited.

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