نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
نویسندگان
^{1} دانشجوی دکتری روان شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
^{2} دانشیار گروه روانشناسی بالینی ، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران، نویسنده مسئول
^{3} دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
^{4} دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
چکیده
کلیدواژهها
موضوعات
عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]
Research method: This research was practical in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection method it was semiexperimental, of pretestposttest type with control group and followup after two months. The statistical population of the research was all the students diagnosed with a learning disorder in mathematics in the second grade of elementary school in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades of the elementary school in Tehran in the academic year 20182019, who were introduced to the special centers for learning disorders in Tehran. The purposeful sampling method was used for sampling. 30 people were selected for the experimental group and the implementation of interventions, and 30 people were selected as the control group. For the subjects of the experimental group, training sessions were held for 10 sessions. The research tools were children's Wechsler test, Cass test and training course for the experimental group. To analyze the data, Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mochli's sphericity test, Levin's variance error equality test, bivariate analysis of variance test, Ben Feroni's post hoc test and line graph were used.
Findings: There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of four brain processing skills training in the cognitive functions of students with learning disabilities in math and reading. But the four processes of the brain in the experimental groups also caused a significant increase in their scores after the cognitive functions test (the average of the experimental groups was 281.729 and the average of the control groups was 263.321).
Conclusion: The results showed that the four brain processing skills training is effective on the cognitive functions of students with learning disabilities in math and reading.
کلیدواژهها [English]
The Comparison of Quadruple Brain Processing skill training Effectiveness on Cognitive Functions in Students Experiencing Learning Impairment in Mathematics and Reading
Moeini Z.S.,[1] Keshavarzi Arshadi F., *[2] Hassan Zadeh,[3] Lavasani GH.A.[4]
Abstract
Introduction: Given that there is a significant and negative relationship between the mathematics operation and lack of concentration, hyperactivity and impulsivity, there is a positive relationship between learning strategies, attitude towards study and selfconcept as well; the present study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of quadruple brain processing skill training on cognitive function in the students experiencing learning disorder in math and reading.
Method: The current study was practical and applicable in terms of purpose, and in terms of data collection was semiexperimental, pretestposttest type along with control group and followup after two months. The statistical population includes all the students who were introduced to Tehran special center of learning disorders, in the second primary school grade, experiencing math learning disorder, in 4^{th}, 5^{th} and 6^{th} grades in Tehran during school year, 20182019. Purposive sampling method was used for sampling. 30 students were selected as the experimental group and performing interventions, and 30 were chosen as the control group. 10session training meetings were held for the subjects of the experimental group. Research tools were Children’s Wechsler Test, Cas test and holding training course for experimental group. Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mauchly’s Sphericity test, Levene’s test for equality of error variance, twoway analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc test, and bar graph were used to analyze data.
Findings: there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of quadruple brain processing skill training on cognitive function in the students experiencing learning disorder in math and reading. But, quadruple brain processing in the experimental group leads to a significant increase in their pretest score of cognitive functions the mean of experimental groups was 281.729 and the control groups equals (263.321).
Conclusion: the results indicate that quadruple brain processing skill training is effective on the cognitive functions in the student's experiencing math and reading learning disorders.
Keywords: skill training, quadruple brain processing, cognitive functions, math learning disorder, reading learning disorder.
Received: 22/May/2022 Accepted: 3/July/ 2022
Introduction:
Learning disabilities are neurobiological impairments which affect the basic processes of verbal and written language understanding. Students suffer from learning disorders are unable to solve problems and they are not usually aware of problemsolving processes (1). It is estimated that 10% of students have some form of learning disorders and on average, two/three students in each class have learning disorders (2). According to Fletcher’s definition, students experiencing learning disabilities, cannot be successful in various educational skills such as listening, comprehensive reading, basic reading skills, mathematical calculations and problem solving according to their age and assessment levels standards (score) (3). Difficulty in counting, comparing quantities, recognizing numbers and digits and working memory are considered, by the researchers, as the reliable indicators in early diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities in children. Epidemiological study has shown that between 510% of school children are suffering from mathematical learning disabilities, and in etiology, this impairment has referred to a combination of nature and nurture impact (4). A study review indicates that students’ educational performance is influenced by cognitive functions (5,6). Cognitive functions help the development of children’s abilities (7) and accompanied with educational success (8).
The quadruple brain processing is among the effective models in this field which has four basic cognitive functions, according to Pass theory[5] as a cognitive processing theory rooted in Luria’s neuropsychological conceptualization of cognitive processes, i.e., planning, concentration, parallel processing, and chain processing, also it has close relationship with person’s performance in cognitive (functions) processes. As it is a multidimensional process, reflects the interconnected actions of various areas in brain (9), and according to Luria’s belief, the integration of cognitive processing is vital to understand the brain function (10). Especially, recent studies provided that the function of PASS theory and cognitive functions suggested some helpful recommendations in learning disorders field (11,12). Basically, Luria has associated the PASS theory with three functional units of the brain. Considering first structural unit means it is related to the brainstem and mesencephalon (midbrain (. Parallel and chain processing are grafted to the second structural unit means occipital, temporal and parietal lobes. Planning is grafted to the third structural unit means frontal lobe; especially frontal lobe grafted in the same direction (13).
Reading and math are among the subjects in which their appropriate function was and are always very important to the students and their parents. Considering that the main task of neurological goaloriented processes in cognitive functions is controlling and coordinating behavior, these functions help individuals in different fields including planning goals, monitoring own behavior, avoiding inappropriate responses, flexibility and future behavior orientation (14). Das and Misra’s (15) study have reported, according to the PASS theory function, concentration, attention and especially parallel processing are corresponding to the problem solving. Cai (16) considered planning as important in doing numerical tasks and memorizing basic mathematical facts, as well. Naglieri (17) has also linked planning with mathematical general success. Other studies results support the role of working memory, attention, and phonological awareness in learning reading and mathematical skills (18). Siavashifer (19) has carried out research with the aim of comparing the effectiveness of Dawsonguier program and training of metacognitive strategies on executive functions (attention, working memory and behavioral inhibition) in the students experiencing learning disabilities with reading characteristics. Findings have shown that both interventional programs have significant effect on improving attention, working memory and students’ behavioral inhibition who suffer from learning disorder with reading characteristics. Khanjani (20) investigated the effectiveness of the cognitive rehabilitation therapy in improving children’s visual and auditory memory experiencing learning disorder with/without attention deficithyperactivity impairment. The present study findings indicated that cognitive rehabilitation method is effective for the aforementioned groups and the difference in effectiveness of auditory memory was significant in two groups. Child (18) conducted a survey on the examination of the relationship between reading and mathematics with regard to phonological awareness, working memory and processing speed. The results have shown working memory, attention and phonological awareness play important roles in learning reading and mathematical skills. Vicente (21) in his research examined this question that how related variables with cognitive functions and learning and mathematical improvements are related to each other among the primary school children. The results have shown that there is a negative and significant relationship between mathematics operation and lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, as well as positive relationship between learning strategies, attitude towards study and selfconcept. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the present study is as follows: “Is there a difference between quadruple brain processing skill training on cognitive functions in two groups of students experiencing math and learning disorders?”
Method:
The current study was practical and applicable in terms of purpose, and in terms of data collection was semiexperimental, pretestposttest along with control group and followup after two months. This plan is formed by adding pretest to posttest plan to the control group. The statistical population includes all the students who were introduced to Tehran special center of learning disorders, in the second primary school grade, experiencing math learning disorder, in 4^{th}, 5^{th} and 6^{th} grades in Tehran during school year, 20182019. Purposive sampling method was used for sampling. Four centers among the special learning disorders center in Tehran were selected for choosing the subjects. 30 students were selected as the experimental group and performing interventions, and 30 were chosen as the control group. 10session training meetings were held for the subjects of the experimental group. After finishing training sessions (which are thoroughly describes as follows), the research questionnaires were conducted on both experimental and control group as a posttest. The following standard test was used for collecting data:
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: it contains 16 subtests to evaluate their cognitive abilities and children’s intelligence aged 616 years and 11 months which were provided, adapted and standardized by the psychometric institute in 2014. This test contains 16 subtests.
CAS Test: according to the examination of “cognitive evaluation system known as CAS test”, the evaluation and assessment of training in both experimental groups 1&2 PASS theory was designed and provided. CAS test is an individual performance test which is designed for 517 years old children and adolescents. It contains 12 subtests which all are usually implemented and organized according to the 4 PASS areas. Meanwhile, an overall score is considered and calculated for the entire scale. PASS subscales and standard scores of entire scale can be obtained through using two combinations of subtests and in two forms. 10sessions meetings were hold as the training session for the subjects of experimental group. Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mauchly’s Sphericity test, Levene’s test for equality of error variance, twoway analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc test, and bar graph were used to analyze data as the statistical methods.
Findings:
To examine the effectiveness of quadruple brain processing skill training on the students’ cognitive functions, who suffer from math and reading learning disorders to respond this hypothesis, twoway ANOVA was used respecting the assumptions (normality, variance homogeneity and regression line slope homogeneity between groups), due to the presence of a continuous dependent variable (cognitive function posttest score) and a covariate (cognitive functions pretest score), a skill training stratified independent variable in two levels (experimental and control groups) and an impairment stratifies independent variable in two levels (students experiencing math learning disorder and students experiencing reading learning disorder).
Table 1. The homogeneity of the regression slope lines (mutual effect test) 

variables 
SS 
df 
MS 
F 
sig 
Mutual effect of pretest score in skill training 
.065 
1 
.065 
.003 
.960 
Mutual effect of pretest score in some forms of impairments 
2.324 
1 
2.324 
.090 
.766 
Mutual effect of pretest score in skill training and some forms of impairments 
8.788 
1 
8.788 
.340 
.564 
error 
853.005 
33 
25.849 


Symbols: df= degree of freedom, SS= sum of squares، MS= mean squares, ،F=test, sig= statistical significance 
According to the results, statistical significance was more than 0.05 for all three Fstatistics; mutual effect nonsignificance showed the data supports the hypothesis of the homogeneity of the regression slop lines, therefore, the assumptions of covariance analysis are valid. The summary of the singlevariable covariance analysis results is presented in the table for cognitive functions in the experimental and control groups of students experiencing math and reading learning disorders.
Table 2 Summary of the singlevariable covariance analysis results for cognitive functions in the experimental and control groups 

effects 
SS 
df 
MS 
F 
sig 
Eta 
Pretest (covariance) 
47010.868 
1 
47010.868 
1960.018 
.001 
.982 
Skill training 
1749.824 
1 
1749.824 
72.955 
.001 
.670 
disorder 
29.044 
1 
29.044 
1.211 
.278 
.033 
error 
863.457 
36 
23.985 



According to this table, Ftest is 1960/018 for covariance variable or pretest which is significant in 0.01 level, and its elaborated variance value equals 0.982. Ftest is 72.955 for the independent skill training variable (experimental and control groups) which is significant in 0.01 level and its elaborated variance value equals 0.670; i.e., 67% of dependent variance variable (cognitive functions’ posttest score) is elaborated by the quadruple brain processing of skill training. The effect of intervention was not significant (F=1.211, P>0.05), therefore, there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive functions of the student's experiencing math and reading learning disorders. But, the subjects of pretest condition had a significant effect on increasing posttest score, and quadruple brain processing skill training significantly increased their scores in the experimental groups in the cognitive functions’ posttest (the experimental group mean was 281.729 and control groups mean was 263.321).
To examine the effect of quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive functions of both experimental groups of students suffering from math and reading learning disorder in pretest phase, posttest and followup stages of mixed measurement variance analysis were used (one factor within subjects and one between subjects). The triple stages of pretest, posttest and followup were considered as the within factor in the subjects and grouping subjects in the two groups were considered as the betweensubject factor.
Table 3 hypothetical results of Sphericity in three stages 

variable 
Mauchly 
c2 
df 
sig 
HuynhFeldt 
Cognitive function 
.686 
6.396 
2 
.041 
.863 
As the table illustrates, the Sphericity is not valid (the significance of this value is less than 0.05). Epsilon correction strategies are used in such cases. There are three estimations for it. The present study used HuynhFeldt estimation due to the equality of sample size in the groups, thus, the index of Greenhouse Geisser Epsilon was used instead of the degree of freedom and the results of mixed measurement variance analysis results were calculated according to the nonestablishment of Sphericity assumptions.
Table 4 the summary of mixed measurement variance analysis results on cognitive functions in two experimental groups
intragroup factor

effects 
SS 
df 
MS 
F 
sig 
Eta 
phases 
8131.300 
1.523 
5340.484 
125.663 
.001 
.875 

The interaction of group stage^{*} 
303.300 
1.523 
199.202 
4.687 
.026 
.207 

error 
1164.733 
27.406 
42.499 




intergroup factor 
Group 
3153.750 
1 
3153.750 
.902 
.355 
.048 
error 
62914.167 
18 
3495.231 



As the table shows, cognitive functions’ change is significant in the three measuring stages of pretest, posttest and followup (F=125.633, P<0.05). the mutual effect of stages and group is significant in three measuring stages of pretest, posttest and followup (F=4.687, P<0.05). Indeed, the process of cognitive functions’ changing scores is different in posttest and followup in the two experimental groups. The effect size and degree were 0.875 and 0.207 in creating intragroup and intergroup differences, respectively. The effect of group membership was not significant (i.e., the effectiveness of quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive function had not significant difference in the students suffering from math and reading learning disorder). As a result, the evidence indicates that the quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive function in the students suffering from math and reading learning disorder has significant effect. The cognitive functions’ graph of the students experiencing learning disorder in two groups of math and reading in three measuring stages was as follows.
Chart1. Cognitive functions of the two experimental groups of students in the three measurement phases
As it is obvious from the graph, cognitive functions of the students in two groups in posttest and followup increased significantly comparing with pretest. The score of student's cognitive functions experiencing reading learning disorder in posttest in comparison with the students by reading learning disorder was higher, but in followup showed an increase, while the score of cognitive functions of students experiencing math learning disorder in the followup increased slightly; but there is no significant difference between two groups. Given the significance of the increase in the cognitive functions of the two experimental groups, pairwise comparison was carried out by the Benferoni test.
Table 5 pairwise comparison with the Benferoni test in the two experimental groups 

group 
phases 
Mean difference 
error 
Significance 
Reading disorder 
Pretestpost test 
24.50 
1.34 
1.00 
Pretest followup 
19.00 
3.20 
.001 

Posttest followup 
5.50 
2.59 
.063 

Math disorder 
Pretest posttest 
26.00 
2.50 
.001 
Pretestfollowup 
29.20 
3.13 
.001 

Posttestfollowup 
3.20 
2.01 
.146 
As it can be seen in the table, there was a significant increase in the score of cognitive functions in two groups of students experiencing math impairment and reading impairment, in “posttest compared to pretest” and “followup compared to pretest” (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in the cognitive functions’ scores in “followup compared to posttest”.
Discussion and Conclusion:
The results of the study showed that there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive functions in the students experiencing math and reading learning disorder. But pretest subjects' condition has significant effect on increasing posttest scores, and quadruple brain processing skill training, also significantly increased their score, in the experimental groups, in the cognitive functions’ posttest. The examination of the effectiveness of the quadruple brain processing skill training on the cognitive functions in two experimental groups of the students suffering from math and reading learning disorder showed that, in pretest, posttest and followup phases, the quadruple brain processing skill training has significant effect on the cognitive function of students experiencing learning disorder in math and reading and it is found that, through Benferroni test, the scores of cognitive functions in two groups of the students by impairment in reading and math in “posttest compared to pretest” and “followup compared to pretest”, there was a significant increase, but the scores of cognitive functions in “followup compared to posttest” does not have any significant difference. Among the obtained results of the Siavashifar (19), Khanjani (20), Samadi (22), Birami (23), Taghizade (24), Fathi Aghtiyani (25), Soleimani (26), Child (18), Vicente (21), Amood (27), Landros Thomas (28), Leung (29) Cai’s (16) studies, there is an alignment and all the findings are supported. It should be acknowledged, in the finding's elaboration, according to the Britani definition (30) that cognitive function is a general term that includes all the complex cognitive processes necessary in doing goaloriented hard or new tasks and contains the ability to delay or specific response inhibition, as well as action sequence planning and maintaining mental representation task through working memory. According to Holmes perspective (31) conscious methods in the neuroscience can have positive effects on the brain growth and learning. Meanwhile, high potential and capacity of mindfulnessbased training practices on brain flexibility toward comprehensive learning and general health have been supported. Therefore, using cognitive functions is an appropriate method which is effective on the quadruple brain processing skill training in the students experiencing learning disorder in math and reading and must be taken into account.
Suggested for further reading:
[1]  Ph. D student in Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. zohrehmoeeni@yahoo.com,
ORCID: 0000000299564900
[2]  Corresponding author, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran. F.keshavarzi@ctb.iau.ir
ORCID: 0000000225942796
[3]  Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. shasanz@ut.ac.ir
ORCID: 0000000118745678
[4]  Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Lavasani@ut.ac.ir,
ORCID: 0000000309581027
© 2020 The Author(s). This work is published by family and health as an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync/4.0/). Noncommercial uses of the work are permitted, provided the original work is properly cited.
[5] Planning, Attention, Successive & Simultaneous (PASS)