اثربخشی موسیقی درمانی بر توجه و تمرکز، سازگاری اجتماعی و پرخاشگری دانش‌آموزان کم‌توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته روانشناسی تربیتی، گروه روانشناسی،واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه علوم تربیتی، واحداردبیل، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، اردبیل، ایران (نویسنده مسئول) (نویسنده مسئول). Nakhostin1@yahoo.com

3 استادیار،گروه روانشناسی، واحداردبیل، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: با تمایل رو به رشدی که در سال­های اخیر نسبت به استفاده از موسیقی و فعالیت­های مرتبط با آن در حوزه های درمانی مشاهده می­شود، مقاله حاضر با هدف اثربخشی موسیقی­درمانی بر توجه و تمرکز، سازگاری اجتماعی و پرخاشگری دانش­آموزان کم­توان ذهنی انجام شد.
روش پژوهش: این پژوهش از نوع نیمه­آزمایشی با طرح پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون با گروه کنترل است. جامعه آماری، کلیه دانش­آموزان پسر دوره دوم ابتدایی کم­توان ذهنی مدارس استثنائی شهر تبریز در سال تحصیلی400-1399 بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری در دسترس30 نفر دانش­آموز کم­توان ذهنی انتخاب شدند و  به صورت دو گروه آزمایش(15 نفر) وکنترل(15 نفر) گمارده شدند. جهت سنجش توجه و تمرکز از حافظه فعال در مقیاس هوش وکسلر- نسخه چهارم، جهت سنجش سازگاری اجتماعی از پرسشنامه سینها و سینگ و جهت سنجش پرخاشگری از پرسشنامه شهیم استفاده شد. روایی ابزارها توسط متخصصان تایید شد و پایایی ابزار سازگاری اجتماعی با کودر-ریچاردسون و پایایی سایر ابزار با آلفای کرون­باخ سنجش و مورد تایید واقع شدند(7/0<α). قبل از اجرای مداخله از هر دو گروه پیش­آزمون توجه و تمرکز، سازگاری اجتماعی و پرخاشگری به عمل آمد. گروه آزمایش آموزش موسیقی­درمانی را از طریق پکیج آموزشی در 12 جلسه دریافت کرد و گروه کنترل هیچگونه مداخله آموزشی دریافت نکرد. پس از اجرای مداخله در مرحله پس­آزمون، هر دو گروه مجددا ابزارهای مرحله پیش­آزمون را پاسخ دادند. داده­ها با استفاده از آزمون کواریانس تک­متغیره و کواریانس چندمتغیری تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد آموزش موسیقی­درمانی در افزایش توجه و تمرکز و افزایش سازگاری اجتماعی و دو خرده­مقیاس آن و همچنین درکاهش پرخاشگری و دو خرده­مقیاس آن اثربخش بوده است (05/0> p).
نتیجه گیری: با توجه به اثربخشی موسیقی­درمانی در پژوهش حاضر؛ پیشنهاد می­شود؛ در مدارس استثنایی از روشهای آموزشیِ موسیقی­درمانی در قالب واحد مصوب درسی با هدفِ افزایش توجه و تمرکز و سازگاری اجتماعی و کاهش پرخاشگری دانش­آموزان کم­توان ذهنی بهره گرفته شود

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Attention and Concentration, Social Adjustment and Aggression of Students with Intellectual Disability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrnaz Mehrafza 1
  • Asghar Nokhostin Goldoost 2
  • Azar Kiamarsi 3
1 PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Ira (Corresponding Author). E-mail: Nakhostin1@yahoo.com
3 Assistant Professor, Department of psychology, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: With the growing tendency towards the use of music and related activities in the field of medicine in recent years, the present article was done with the aim to investigate the effectiveness of music therapy on attention and concentration, social adjustment and aggression of students with intellectual disability.
Methods: The research method was quasi-experimental with a pretest and posttest design plus control group. The statistical society of the study consisted of male students with intellectual disability in second grade of elementary exceptional schools during 2021-2022 and among them 30 students were selected in available sampling method as the sample case and categorized in experimental group (15 students) and control group (15 students). Data collection tools included Wechsler (4th edition) scale to evaluate students` attention and concentration of active memory, Sinha and Singe social adjustment questionnaire and Shahim aggression questionnaire. The validity of research instruments was confirmed by the approval of specialists, the reliability of social adjustment questionnaire was determined through Kruder-Richardson and for the other research instruments`, the reliability was estimated and approved by calculating Cronbach alpha coefficient (α> 0.7). Prior to the study, Pre-test of attention and concentration, social adjustment and aggression was implemented in both groups. The experimental group received music therapy through the training package in 12 sessions, but the control group did not receive any training therapy. After the training course in the post-test stage, both of the groups answered to the same questionnaire of pre-test stage. The research data was analyzed with one way and Multivariate Covariance Analysis.
Results: The results revealed that the music therapy had a positive effect on the increase of students’ attention and concentration, social adjustment and their two subscales, also on the reduction of their aggression with its two subscales (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the effectiveness of the music therapy in the present research, it was suggested to apply periodically the methods of music therapy with the aim to increase their attention and concentration and social adjustment, and also to decrease intellectually disabled students’ aggression and anxiety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention and Concentration" Aggression" Intellectual Disability" Music Therapy" Social Adjustment
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